[EC Final 2021] DFS Order


给定一棵以 $1$ 为根节点的树,若按**任意顺序**进行深度优先搜索,则第 $i$ 个点最小是第几个被搜到的以及最大是第几个?


Prof. Pang has a rooted tree which is rooted at $1$ with $n$ nodes. These $n$ nodes are numbered from $1$ to $n$. Now he wants to start the depth-first search at the root. He wonders for each node $v$, what is the minimum and the maximum position it can appear in the $\textbf{depth-first search order}$. The depth-first search order is the order of nodes visited during the depth-first search. A node appears in the $j$-th ($1\le j\le n$) position in this order means it is visited after $j-1$ other nodes. Because sons of a node can be iterated in arbitrary order, multiple possible depth-first orders exist. Prof. Pang wants to know for each node $v$, what are the minimum value and the maximum value of $j$ such that $v$ appears in the $j$-th position. Following is a pseudo-code for the depth-first search on a rooted tree. After its execution, $\texttt{dfs\_order}$ is the depth-first search order. ``` let dfs_order be an empty list def dfs(vertex x): append x to the end of dfs_order. for (each son y of x): // sons can be iterated in arbitrary order. dfs(y) dfs(root) ```



The first line contains a single integer $T~(1 \le T \le 10^6)$ denoting the number of test cases. For each test case, the first line contains an integer $n~(1 \le n \le 10 ^ 5)$. Each of the next $n-1$ lines contains two integers $x$ and $y$, indicating node $x$ is node $y$'s parent ($1\le x, y\le n$). These edges form a tree rooted at $1$. It is guaranteed that the sum of $n$ over all test cases is no more than $10^6$.


For each test case, print $n$ lines. The $i$-th line contains two integers denoting the minimum and the maximum position node $i$ can appear in the depth-first search order.


输入样例 #1

1 2
2 3
3 4
1 2
2 3
2 4
1 5

输出样例 #1

1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
1 1
2 3
3 5
3 5
2 5